As he sees it, Charpentier and Doudna made a discovery, which is what the committee prefers to reward, and he and Zhang were inventors. These sequences are derived from DNA fragments of bacteriophages that had previously infected the prokaryote. Nat Rev Genet 15:321–334. Nat Biotechnol 34:334–338. Nature 514:380–384. doi:10.1038/nature13166, Zou B, Mittal R, Grati M, Lu Z, Shu Y, Tao Y, Feng Y, Xie D, Kong W, Yang S, Chen Z-Y, Liu X (2015) The application of genome editing in studying hearing loss. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000238, Tsai SQ, Zheng Z, Nguyen NT, Liebers M, Topkar VV, Thapar V, Wyvekens N, Khayter C, Iafrate AJ, Le LP, Aryee MJ, Joung JK (2014) GUIDE-seq enables genome-wide profiling of off-target cleavage by CRISPR-Cas nucleases. PubMed Central  PLoS Genet 4:e1000238. Mol Cell 60:385–397. doi:10.1038/nbt.3190, Mianné J, Chessum L, Kumar S, Aguilar C, Codner G, Hutchison M, Parker A, Mallon A-M, Wells S, Simon MM, Teboul L, Brown SDM, Bowl MR (2016) Correction of the auditory phenotype in C57BL/6N mice via CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homology directed repair. Bacteria use the original form of CRISPR to fend off viruses, slicing up their DNA. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt772, Grati M, Yan D, Raval MH, Walsh T, Ma Q, Chakchouk I, Kannan-Sundhari A, Mittal R, Masmoudi S, Blanton SH, Tekin M, King M-C, Yengo CM, Liu XZ (2016) Myo3a causes human dominant deafness and interacts with protocadherin 15-Cd2 isoform. They are used to detect and destroy DNA from similar bacteriophages during subsequent infections. W H Freeman, New York, Maddalo D, Manchado E, Concepcion CP, Bonetti C, Vidigal JA, Han Y-C, Ogrodowski P, Crippa A, Rekhtman N, de Stanchina E, Lowe SW, Ventura A (2014) In vivo engineering of oncogenic chromosomal rearrangements with the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Hear Res 327:102–108. Google Scholar, Bedell MA, Jenkins NA, Copeland NG (1997) Mouse models of human disease. While many technological advances have helped improve these approaches, some gaps still remain. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.04.025, Wang T, Wei JJ, Sabatini DM, Lander ES (2014) Genetic screens in human cells using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. “As much as I have been awarded a number of prizes, it’s something you hear, but you don’t completely connect,” she said in a phone call with the Nobel Prize officials. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-34148-4, Hanahan D, Weinberg RA (2000) The hallmarks of cancer. Article  PLoS One 10:e0120396. News Staff, "Breakthrough of the year: The Runners-Up–Genetic Microsurgery for the Masses," Science (20 Dec 2013), J. Travis, "Germline editing dominates DNA summit," Science (11 Dec 2015), J. Travis, "Making the cut," Science (18 Dec 2015), Sci. J Pathol 211:188–197. “Feng Zhang is so full of creative ideas that I have no doubt that he will get one or two in the future.”, Erik Sontheimer, a CRISPR researcher at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, also endorses the Nobel committee decision. doi:10.1002/ar.22579, CAS  Science 343:84–87. Hence these sequences play a key role in the antiviral (i.e. doi:10.1038/nbt.3471, Yoshimi K, Kunihiro Y, Kaneko T, Nagahora H, Voigt B, Mashimo T (2016) ssODN-mediated knock-in with CRISPR-Cas for large genomic regions in zygotes. Sci Rep 6:21918. doi:10.1038/srep21918, Kim H, Kim J-S (2014) A guide to genome engineering with programmable nucleases. And Science’s 2015 Breakthrough of the Year is... one of the most controversial biomedical experiments of the past decade, when a Chinese scientist edited the genomes of human embryos, become a leader in other areas of CRISPR research, A Programmable Dual-RNA-Guided DNA Endonuclease in Adaptive Bacterial Immunity, Structures of Cas9 Endonucleases Reveal RNA-Mediated Conformational Activation, The new frontier of genome engineering with CRISPR-Cas9, A prudent path forward for genomic engineering and germline gene modification, Structures of the CRISPR-Cmr complex reveal mode of RNA target positioning, A Cas9–guide RNA complex preorganized for target DNA recognition, Dynamics of CRISPR-Cas9 genome interrogation in living cells, Structures of a CRISPR-Cas9 R-loop complex primed for DNA cleavage, Disabling Cas9 by an anti-CRISPR DNA mimic, A conformational checkpoint between DNA binding and cleavage by CRISPR-Cas9, CRISPR-Cas guides the future of genetic engineering, Knocking out barriers to engineered cell activity, DNA capture by a CRISPR-Cas9–guided adenine base editor, Breakthrough of the year: The Runners-Up–Genetic Microsurgery for the Masses, Editorial: Breakthrough to genome editing, ‘Base editors’ open new way to fix mutations, Largest ever research integrity survey flounders as universities refuse to cooperate, For €9500, Nature journals will now make your paper free to read, After scalding critiques of study on gender and mentorship, journal says it is reviewing the work, Breast milk contains coronavirus antibodies, study suggests, Hurricanes are retaining their strength after reaching land, study suggests, Injection of long-acting drug prevents HIV in women, Newly discovered reef is taller than a skyscraper, Public needs to prep for vaccine side effects, Potential signs of life on Venus are fading fast, Study homes in on ‘exceptional responders’ to cancer drugs, Laser fusion reactor approaches ‘burning plasma’ milestone, American Association for the Advancement of Science.